Legalising the horn trade

Save the Rhino has not yet reached a conclusion on whether the trade in rhino horn should be legalised, and we are currently considering the cases for and against the proposal.

The debate over whether or not to legalise the trade in rhino horn tends to polarise opinion. Let’s start with the two central tenets that people in all camps can agree on. Firstly, we all want to see more rhinos in more viable populations in the wild. Secondly, we all accept that there is no silver bullet that will solve the rhino poaching crisis: legal trade on its own will not work; anti-poaching patrols on their own will not work. So the question should really be: what combination of approaches should we adopt to ensure that rhino numbers and rhino population numbers continue to grow?

Legalising the trade may be one of these approaches and is currently being heavily discussed by South Africa. There are several different options for a legalised trade in rhino horn. Click on the headers below to read more about the different possibilities. 

1. One off sale of rhino horn stockpiles
2. Domestic trade in rhino horn
3. (Semi) permanent international CITES regulated sale

Rangers Horns Credit Renaud Fulconis

Further reading and recent news stories

Photo credit Renaud Fulconis

(40) Comments

  • Anonymous commenter
    05 May 2013, 05:55

    It should not be legalized, however legally dehorned horns could be dispensed into the market at the full illegal market price to generate income for rhino protection. In such case internationally certified agents could be exempted from the prohibition in order to collect the value without legalizing the trade.

  • Andrew
    12 May 2013, 10:25

    Any approach towards the legalising of the trade has got to be cautious in the extreme. My main concern is that this would be a classic genie out of the bottle case and if legalisation proceeded then it would be near on impossible to reverse or monitor afterwards. If the decision turned out to be wrong then the consequences could be catastrophic. We will have gambled it all on a single roll of the die... and lost.

  • Andrew
    12 May 2013, 11:46

    One of the main proponent arguments for legalising the trade is to flood the market with stockpiles using the laws of supply and demand to drop the value of the horn and thus make it less attractive to poachers. This is too simplistic a rationale however with several potential flaws. There are indeed large stockpiles that if released in one or two batches to the market would be sufficient to depress market value. However, longer term, once the stockpiles are gone will there be sufficient supply to maintain low market pricing? If the prices rise again then the potential for poaching returns. Secondly, just because stockpiles are released, doesn't necessarily mean that they will reach the end market in bulk. Will mechanisms be in place to ensure that the stockpiles are not simply transferred in to the hands of the illegal cartels currently running the trade? If not, they will simply buy up the supply at low prices and then hoard them to artificially maintain high prices to the end users. We see how this occurs in the diamond industry where prices are kept artificially high because of the control of supply by a cartel. Thirdly, how much of the current research is based on existing demand levels for horn and how much has been allowed in the equation to cope with the inevitable explosion of demand following legalisation? Middle incomes continue to rise in the Far East and any demand models need to take in to account a quickly rising demand curve. Will there really be sufficient supply in the future to meet demand while keeping prices low enough to deter poaching? Debateable and, to me, not worth the risk of finding out.

  • Andrew
    12 May 2013, 12:07

    Is this a solution proposed to save all Rhinos and their habitats as we would want them or a desperate measure to ensure that at least a few rhino survive to be seen? Take a hypothetical post-legalisation of trade world: I am a landowner in South Africa and Rhino are living on my land. Yesterday they were wildlife that happened to be there. Today they have suddenly become my property. They have value to me and I don't want to lose them. I start by building more fencing. I can't have them wandering in to my neighbours property or they will be able to harvest the horn. In fact, I want to try and get their rhinos to wander on to my property. I want as many rhino as possible to increase my income. That means I want White Rhino. They are more sociable than Black Rhinos. More can live in an area and they are more amenable to be approached and de-horned. I don't care so much about black rhino as they won't be as profitable. My white Rhino only need grass to eat and I need to be able to track them and get to them easily. Best to cut down all the acacia scrub and create wide open grassland with little else in the way of bushes or trees. The landscape is now becoming open grazing farmland with less variety and less able to sustain a full ecosystem. Other species are suffering but at least there are lots of white rhinos. I am now developing cost effective ways to de-horn. The rhino are more sociable now and used to humans. They allow us to herd them in to bomas so that they can patiently allow us to de-horn them without sedation. I am keeping my eyes open for those with larger horn sizes as I am now going to start selective breeding for "my stock". The white rhinos are starting to become something else, no longer wild, more like specially bred cattle. Elsewhere, black rhino are being pushed out as white rhino become more commercial. The remaining black rhino are being poached because gangs market their horns as being more potent than white rhino horns and so are commanding higher prices. Some farmers appreciate this and try to cash in but the black rhino are difficult to keep and socialise so most stick to the commercial white. Poaching is not so prevalent, white rhinos are on the rise but is this really the rhino world we wanted?

  • David Maguire
    17 October 2013, 20:23

    I disagree with the very first comment "we all want to see more rhinos in more viable populations in the wild" Why?? There are plenty of Southern White Rhino in our game reserves. In fact there are probably too many in the Kruger National Park with numbers now in excess of 7000, probably closer to 10,000 and about 1700 to 1900 in the Umfolozi parks. How many can these reserves hold without grazing and other species being affected, and how many do we want to see? Its crazy. Rhino numbers have been increasing over the past 20 years to the extent that we now dont need any more. What we do need is more habitat or game reserves if we want more Rhino. Back in the late 70's early 80's there were probably just under or just over a thousand White rhino in the KNP and only a few hundred black rhino. It has now increased to close on 10,000 and that is too many considering it was said then that the K Park could sustain only 7000 elephant. There are many more now and the park actually has too much game. If Rhino sanctuaries were established in areas adjoining the KNP and in other areas where poaching is rife, these would act as decoys and attract poachers if the sanctuaries were small enough and highly populated with white rhino. It may well keep poachers out of the park and would be easier to catch them since these sanctuaries would act as bait to the poachers and traps could be set to intercept them there. It should also be remembered that the white rhino, because of the high numbers, assist in protecting the more endangered black rhino since they are easier to find and hunt and may have larger horns. Likewise, these sanctuaries would do the same to protect the rhino in the parks adjoining these sanctuaries. So we should be thinking of getting some of the "TOO MANY"rhino in the park into such sanctuaries that would in effect buffer poaching in the park. This is already happening in private game reserves and game farms where rhino are poached and is assisting the protection of the rhino in the parks.

  • John
    25 October 2013, 23:17

    David, with respect, with 7 BILLION humans and counting, maybe there's just too many people squeezing out every other species.

  • peta taylor
    21 February 2014, 14:34

    I simply don't understand the argument for legalising a trade (i.e.developing rhino farming) in what is essentially a placebo substance. If it goes ahead, isn't it akin to admitting that rhino horns have medicinal properties: they don't and it's been scientifically proven that they don't. So it's a no-win: dealers/farmers/traders would be lying and open to litigation while the poor old rhinos pay up, albeit under controlled situations. Most money generated really should be spent educating and appealing to people (Vietnamese...whoever's involved) to reject and refuse because it's all a lie and they're wasting their MONEY. Money is after all at the root of this and I suspect will trump any sense of animal welfare in the cultures who pursue rhino horn for some crazed status symbol or mythical power it is believed to have. Emphasise the lies and waste of money over the cruelty with these people...talk in their terms.

  • Clare Davies
    26 February 2014, 03:49

    I am glad someone wrote an article on the pros and cons of trading legally in rhino horn. I dont believe this is because I have a bias, but I found the arguements for trading in rhino horn legally (permitting trade in horn) a lot stronger than the arguments for not trading. I really found the arguments for not legalising trade in rhino horn pretty weak. I know this article was written to give both sides so its not a criticism, but an observation that the arguments for and against and weak on the one hand and a lot stronger on the other. I believe trade in horn has some definite benefits and a trial should be permitted. Thank you - Clare Davies

  • Tris
    12 March 2014, 05:01

    This is not right the rhino horn trade needs to be stopped but people rush into it and will make a silly decision that will end up with all of the rhinos extinct. I think there needs to be some thinking for the pros and cons. This is a serious matter and it means a lot to me I just hope they get it right.

  • Jed
    29 April 2014, 17:00

    We may have been able to at one point but now the numbers are to little, considering the demand would go up before it went down and we would wipe out a lot of species before the demand went down. So now we can not legalize the horn trade. It would not benefit any animal.

  • Anonymous commenter
    16 May 2014, 16:38

    I think legalising it is a crazy idea it will just make the problem worse!

  • SisiGandru
    16 July 2014, 12:33

    this is really sad,no matter how hard we try the poachers wont stop doing this so just forget. consider all of them killed

  • Anonymous commenter
    06 August 2014, 17:26

    I'm surprised not to hear a rumor that rhino horns have been doctored with dormant ebola virus or something equally nasty. It would serve the ultimate consumers right to get sick from their "medicine".

  • Anonymous commenter
    13 September 2014, 12:35

    The problem is that conservation is emotion and cause driven. If like most successful en devours it was results driven we might have a chance. 20 years ago east and central Africa where facing the same problems as South Africa is now. A lot of money and effort by very committed people was wasted trying to save the Rhino. In the end all the money and effort failed. If you are an CEO of a company your are judged on results. Why should it be different for conservation. We are trying the same old formula that has already failed because it feels good and is not controversial. In the end when it fails they have the excuse that they were fighting for a good cause.

    Instead of beating on the same old drum that has failed in the past is clearly faltering now, have the guts to try something different. The current system is not working stand aside and let people try other ideas and then judge it on results.

    I wonder if the anti utilization lobby are terrified of trying sustainable utilization because if it works they have to admit that it may have saved the rhino in central and east Africa.

    I am amazed at the extreme caution of people who are anti utilization. It is complex and risky etc etc. The Rhino are vanishing fast while we argue. Either come up with an effective solution that makes you feel good or let others try something different. Soon the argument may be irrelevant.

  • Anonymous commenter
    23 September 2014, 09:22

    In South Africa so many Rhinos have been poached that it seems normal and our government is in so many deals with China that He doesn't care and has not payed a cent to help save these precious animals but tons of millions of rands on his house. Soon South Africa will have no Rhinos

  • Anonymous commenter
    12 October 2014, 18:49

    Whilst the governments and NGOs argue, the White Rhino are disappearing fast. It is time to give legalisation a chance. It is backed by sound minded South African reserve owners who are being frightened out of their lives by poachers who seem to always be one step ahead. Stock piles of rhino horn are a ticking time bomb and take much needed finances to protect. Legalisation makes sense.

  • Anonymous commenter
    03 February 2015, 13:34

    That which is necessary for the protection of this species, both now and in the future, should be done. And as quickly as possible too. But what should be done? That, obviously, remains undone. Sun Tzu, I think, would know exactly what to do about it.

  • Paul
    05 February 2015, 07:59

    CITES has had over 30 years! Education and militarised protection of rhino’s has proven futile, look at the statics… poaching is on the rise because the criminals control the market. In 2016, at the next vote, I really hope CITES members vote to legalise the rhino trade for South Africa. If not, that could be the decision that sends them on a path to extinction. Put emotions aside and look at the situation objectively. Give Wildlife value and it will be protected for generations to come. Have you ever seen a domestic species become extinct… NO. It’s simple, because they have value! Leave the majority of Rhino’s in reserves, take the surplus, give them back to the indigenous people and let them farm the horns. It brings money back into the community and will ensure that community has a true respect and value for wildlife. Let the poachers try kill their stock, have you seen community justice?!? The get the legalised product into the market slowly, increasing gradually to a sustainable level that “horn farms” can keep up with. Over time it becomes affordable to all, less valuable, less demand. Everything else we have tried has FAILED! At the rate we are going, by 2026 there will be no more rhino’s left in the wild. If you think this is fuzzy logic, let the past dictate the future and look at example that shed light on the above. In the 70’s, Kenya and South Africa had the same number of wildlife, 1.5 million heads. Kenya went the full protection route, no trading of wildlife, no breeding farms, no hunting (biltong or sport) only tourism (reserves and photographic). 30 plus years down the line, Kenya has lost 80% of its wildlife to illegal hunting trade and poaching. In South Africa we have allowed trading, farming, hunting (sport and biltong) and tourism. We now have over 20 million heads. Let’s use this knowledge and put idealistic emotions aside. Let wildlife be valuable to the people and the people will protect and conserve their resource, as it becomes their livelihood. Conservation, like all things in life must adapt or it becomes irrelevant.
    Do your research, watch Rhino’s in Crisis by David Cook. Research the facts afterwards and then, for the love of rhino… SHARE! Knowledge is power!
    Paul, Durban, South Africa

  • Anonymous commenter
    09 February 2015, 11:07

    South Africa has an estimate of 18 tons of rhino horn in stockpiles nevermind the rest of Africa. I say sell the stockpiles at low prices and flood the market, this will decrease the risk/reward for poaching. Send the whole lot to the East mixed with a lethal dose of Arsenic, let the rubbish all suffer...

  • Anonymous commenter
    02 March 2015, 12:34

    When I was in Zimbabwe in Hwange last year our guide was convinced that a legal trade was the way to go. All the countries - apart from Kenya I think - has a stockpile of rhino horn apparently. I was amazed as it had seemed so wrong but after listening to him, who really knew his stuff and had no other interest than looking after his environment, I began to think he had a point.

  • Moshimanyana Wa-Lekgowa
    08 March 2015, 15:03

    It is time the ANC idiots realize that using their majority to influence proposals and changes in the constitution is what is taking the country backward. it is time those idiots votes as individuals understanding of the consequences of the proposed agendas, most specially in regard to opposition. The DA last proposed the use of our defense force to help guard our country and boarders, as most attacks in the Kruger are carried out from Mozambique and Zimbabwe. the question is, if this is the case, why not use them? furthermore more why ain't they (defense forces) guarding our boarders anyway? legalizing such trade is not gonna help the rhinos in any way. the rhinos and us as south African need security, our armed forced are used to guard zuma's illegal businesses in Congo, and Central African Republic while our people and rhinos are left to vulnerable. it a no for the trade!

  • Haydn Marques
    15 March 2015, 15:15

    The sad thing about this whole argument, the trade in rhino horn, is that it is based on human greed. Here we are debating the future of these magnificent animals, while they have no choice in their future. No animal appears to have any worth unless it has commercial value. We have destroyed ourselves as a species. Everyone seems to look at this critical situation as an opportunity. And CITES is an oxymoron!

  • Dave, East London
    31 March 2015, 14:48

    I agree strongly with Andrew's comments above (12 May 2013) and Peta's.
    Flooding the market is potentially a great short-term solution, but a poor long-term solution: by legalising the trade, you are vindicating the use of rhino horn as medicine, thereby negating all the work of NGO's in Vietnam that have been trying to change the Vietnamese culture regarding the use of rhino horn. Secondly, you are exposing a far greater population to rhino horn and therefore increasing the market size, so that in years to come the demand will increase. And thirdly, like the diamond trade, how will we know that the horns end up flooding the market?

    The solution is not in anti-poaching. The solution is changing the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese (and other) peoples. They need to be made aware that it is shameful. See TRAFFIC report here: http://www.traffic.org/home/2013/9/17/pioneering-research-reveals-new-insights-into-the-consumers.html

    And lastly, no, you cannot poison the horns!

  • malcolm
    03 April 2015, 07:52

    could someone explain to me how legalising this trade would stop poaching?

  • Anonymous commenter
    24 May 2015, 03:29

    I live in Australia and I got to know about the critical situation of Rhino extinction in recent TV news. My view is that the only way to stop is to control at both the source and supplies.

    Education in Africa is needed to inform the people they are slowly writing off their national precious that can't be replace by money. Future African and world children could only imagine what a Rhino is from a picture unless we do something to protect these harmless animals now.

    Information play a vital role in the consumer market. Many of the horn consumers blindly assumed and belive the price they pay is great for they health. Often these only happen in less educated communities and the government play a vital role in providing information to the business, it is not necessary to kill the hen for its eggs. There are already available or even better substitute for eggs as protein supplement. I am pretty sure there are already substitute for Rhino horns as well.

  • Johnny Goodboy
    09 July 2015, 07:49

    Farmers don't kill their Rhino's when they harvest the horns. The poachers do. Farmers buy their Rhino's and look after them. They can harvest these horns every 20 months. If they can sell these horns, then they will make good money from these animals. Good businesses don't go under, bad ones do. The higher the demand, the more Rhino's will be bred. Diamonds has a high value so they get mined everywhere. Let the farmers make money from their Rhino's and they will breed them more than cattle. Remember, you do not have to kill a Rhino to keep on making money from it. Legalization is the answer and sanity. The rest is idealistic emotion. Johnny Goodboy.

  • kaya
    13 November 2015, 03:20

    I think it should stay this way it's about time they are run off the earth

  • jerry
    15 December 2015, 22:46

    Rhino horn trade needs to be legalized ASAP, otherwise all Rhino will die. The Rhino trade ban triggered all the problems of poaching, which is a classic example that another left-wing policy did exactly opposite what it expected to achieve. Rhino can only survive when it is part of hour life chain, maybe it is for food, or it is for medicine or it is for bags. As long as it is useful,, market will give a way to keep them alive. If the ban is still there, no one other than some government workers will care about Rhino and the only fate for them is extinction .

  • Mike Eikey
    27 December 2015, 04:40

    If investors could buy large tracts of habitat to farm rhino for their horns the species will not go extinct. (thats our goal) The habitat and the species will be saved. There obviously must be regulations and oversight.

  • Cheyne
    02 January 2016, 02:14

    I agree 100%, it worked in North America, bison were quickly becoming extinct long after it became illegal to hunt.. The. They allowed farmers to farm it and they're no were near extinction.

    I don't think cows or chickens are going extinct any time soon. Legally Monetize it and it will grow, instead of buying horns, they'll buy a rhino and just harvest it once a year...

  • Indoda
    08 February 2016, 17:02

    just legalize it, (and weed), and lets all move on... More money is spent fighting rhino poachers (and weed) when we could be making that much or more on the horns (and weed).

  • Anonymous commenter
    15 February 2016, 13:36

    This is not about earning dollars, it's about our future generations together with the beauty of our indigenous animals. So i hardly say: To hell with legalising of rhino horns trade. Instead, we must remove rhinos from game reserve and put them in an isolated reserve. Those who want rhino horns must try to farm their own artificial rhinos. The nature will survive freely when we our species has extinct...

  • Anonymous commenter
    24 April 2016, 16:27

    Stupid is as stupid does....worst idea I've heard in a very long time. Doing this would definitely seal the rhino's fate. Please stop this nonsense and come to your senses before they are all gone.

  • Fikae Chu
    02 May 2016, 04:49

    how can be legalised? human sometimes need to take some ice water to make their brain cold..
    this nonsense to be consent? oh mine...

    heres my article about rhino horn..
    feel free to read http://iceteainfo.blogspot.com/2016/05/asia-is-big-market-for-illegal-rhino.html

  • Anton
    05 May 2016, 05:54

    The bid to have Rhino horn legally traded across the world is deeply flawed. A one off sell of stock piles equally so.

    Stocks, however they are eventually traded in the market, stockpiled or flooded with no regulation are simply not enough, its doubtful if the price will drop, even if it does it will very quickly return to the highs they are now, and in fact higher as demand will have increased substantially.
    Once you have legally supplied the demand how are you going to keep legally supplying the demand with a limited product made ever finite every day by illegal poaching. A demand that will have also substantially increased, and especially if the price falters as proponents suggest it will?

    We are very very far off having enough Rhino world wide to supply an ever growing market. When we have Rhino in the numbers we have cattle world wide then yes by all means. Unfortunately we will never reach that point with poaching levels as they are, we are more than likely going to end up with no rhino instead. Even beef is still smuggled and traded in Hong Kong and China!

    People pushing for this are a tiny minority stake holder in world scheme of Rhino conservation and South African Rhino conservation. Their greed must not be allowed to endanger the world population in this manner. We urgently need ambassadors and education campaigns across Asia. Ones that work like the very successful ongoing campaigns to halt the consumption of shark fin. This brainless scheme has the potential to seriously jeopardise all our attempts. South Africa is already endangering the species single handily with it's unilateral decision making on this issue. They are also jeopardising the entire global Rhino population which is completely unacceptable.

    Ivory trade and poaching is in a dire position. No one knows in Hong Kong which stock piles are poached or not, which are recent which are not, trade is going ahead as usual. Ivory is still pouring in. The government refuses to even make public the list of so called "legal dealers" or stock pilers. The truth is they simply have no way of knowing. Regulation is impossible while you still have legal trade confusing the issue. Each "legal" or otherwise ivory trinket, piece of jewellery, product that goes from HK to China in a tourists luggage creates yet further demand in China. Believe me 1.4 billion people can make even the largest stock pile in the world look like a drop in the ocean. If the market is momentarily flooded with Rhino horn the price will not fluctuate for one second in my opinion, dealers are no fool to supply and demand. In fact quite the opposite. In this part of the world where I am living at the moment it's something of a speciality, a national pride. All the sudden glut will do is make for a one off chance, probably the only ever again in history to purchase stocks at that level. There will not be a shortage of takers.

    The damage done to Rhino conservation and the species will most certainly be catastrophic and irreversible!

    The single event that brings the species to extinction. I have no doubt at all that people like Mr John Hume will not be immune to the inevitable hail of cartel bullets that an ever decreasing supply of rhino horn will produce. None at all.

  • Anton
    05 May 2016, 10:45

    P.S it's also high time all stock piles of rhino horn were burnt! What the f'ing hell are we doing stockpiling Rhino horn in the first place? The value we are putting on horn by stockpiling is no less than paying credance to the idiotic Chinese. Why are we afraid to burn it?

    Briefly flooding the market is the stupidest short term thinking imaginable, the consequences of this thinking will be far reaching and final for the species as a whole, globally.

    Please don't believe Rhino horn is mostly going to Vietnam and there consummed. Vietnam is often used as a scape goat by China for its own consumption of endangered wildlife, so is Thailand and other SEA Countries. Often China will also use places like Vietnam, instead of directly importing or smuggling to deflect international pressure. China has the largest concentration of wealth, disposable income and this is where most of these things end up even if they go via Hong Kong, India, Vietnam, where ever, even if they use Vietnamese to do the smuggling. In all these countries there are also sizable Chinese communities. The Vietnamese themselves for example are quite poor and mostly cannot afford even basic Western medicines never mind Rhino horn! I know I've have just been there as a volunteer medic.

    And please dont believe the small vested interest white minority in South Africa that thinks legalising the trade is a good idea. It would be a global disaster.

  • Nwabisa Jansen (16)
    07 May 2016, 18:34

    To not legalize the sale of rhino horns actually drives people to actually poach the rhinos even more (just like banning something. eg, if a video game is banned, people are triggered to get ahold of the game because of social status. you look "untouchable" because you managed to get ahold of it.)

    I feel that legalizing the sale of rhino horns will actually save the rhinos because people won't be killing the rhinos anymore but only the horns will be cutted off in a safer, hygienic manner. The people who poach the rhinos are in such a hurry to not get caught that they just shoot the rhino, take the horns and leave it to death. Legalizing the sale of rhino horns will mean that rhinos don't have to die in such tremendous way. Besides rhino horns can grow back! Which means that one rhino could supply us with multiple horns.
    The sale of rhino horns will contribute to our poor economy too (S.A).

    The sale of rhino horn is probably the only antidote to the poaching of rhinos.

  • Anonymous commenter
    24 May 2016, 05:51

    So sad that we are so unconscious and greedy that we don't even care for defenceless animals. Teach your new generation of the need to love and to seek a better education, effort rather than easy money.

  • Anonymous commenter
    29 May 2016, 14:31

    The most astounding contribution to this " legalise " debate was Grant Maguire's of 17th October 2013.His contribution was: There are "TOO MANY WHITE RHINOS "

  • A.D.
    18 October 2016, 20:01

    I am glad to see that your organisation is not blindly following the international trend by organisations and media and influenced individuals to say no to the legalisation.

    To me it's just a joke how all the organisations overseas from their comfortable offices and with their secure salary, earning a salary for "saving rhinos", raise their strong opinion against the legalisation of horn. In stead, people should pay more attention to the opinion of the owners of rhino in South Africa who sometimes pay over half of their income to protect and maintain their rhinos. These guys are not uneducated boeren, they know business and they know the poachers they are dealing with.
    And most if not all of them agree: 1) We are not going to change China in the next few years, nor the African middleman 2) we need much more income to pay for our anti-poaching strategies otherwise we will need to sell all our rhinos 3) we want to get rid of our stockpiles (because the maffia is after our stockpiles and we have children) 4) Legalising is not about whether it will increase or decrease the amount of guys sneaking into my property to poach my rhinos. Illegal poaching will stay for as long as china pays a lot of money for horn. It's about stability and hope for the last few rhino owners in South Africa. It's about a big change. Because the alternative (i.e. going on the way we are) will have a sad ending, not too far from now. And in that case I will point my finger at all these organisations who fought against the legalisation and at CITES for listening to them.

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